One of the biggest headaches for employers when administering FMLA leave is how to deal with the employee who exceeds the frequency or duration identified on the employee’s medical certification. Nearly all of these situations involve intermittent leave, which is the type of leave most frequently abused by employees.
Take, for example, Joe, who suffers from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On the FMLA medical certification you received for Joe, his physician indicated that he will be absent for this condition three times each month for one day each episode. But here’s Joe’s pattern over the previous two months: in month one, he was absent five times (one day each) and in month two, he was absent four times, but one of these absences was four days in duration.
Can we discipline Joe for exceeding his frequency and duration indicated on his medical certification?
Not yet. First, we must determine whether we have an obligation to recertify Joe’s absences under the FMLA.
As a general rule, employers can seek recertification only every 30 days unless:
Circumstances described by the previous certification have changed significantly (e.g., the duration or frequency of the absence, the nature or severity of the illness, complications). For example, if a medical certification stated that an employee would need leave for one to two days when the employee suffered a migraine headache and the employee’s absences for his or her last two migraines lasted four days each, then the increased duration of absence might constitute a significant change in circumstances allowing the employer to request a recertification in less than 30 days. 29 CFR 825.308(c)(2)
Joe’s circumstances clearly have changed significantly (i.e., more than double the frequency in month one, and a lengthy duration for one absence in month two). Therefore, the regulations tell us we can do the following:
As part of the information allowed to be obtained on recertification for leave taken because of a serious health condition, the employer may provide the health care provider with a record of the employee’s absence pattern and ask the health care provider if the serious health condition and need for leave is consistent with such a pattern. 29 CFR 825.308(e)
Being the exceedingly reasonable, compliant employers we are, we follow the regulations and ask Joe’s physician to confirm for us whether this change in frequency and duration is consistent with Joe’s serious health condition and his need for leave. If your employment counsel is worth anything, they should be able to draft for you an articulate letter to the doctor explaining the pattern you have observed and your concerns about whether these absences are consistent with Joe’s need for leave.
The Response from Joe’s Physician
Eight times out of 10, Joe’s doctor simply will rubber stamp Joe’s pattern and confirm that these absences are related to his IBS. Right? That goes without saying. But 20 percent of the time, you strike gold — in other words, Joe’s doctor will respond with something to the effect, “I said three times/mo. for one day each, and I meant that! No soup for you!” Well, it’s never that neat, but you know what I mean — the physician will indicate that Joe’s pattern somehow is not consistent with his need for FMLA leave. If we’re lucky, in one in 100 situations, the doctor will tell us in not so many words that Joe is “full of c#&@”! [In light of Joe’s situation, pun definitely intended.]
Can We Discipline Joe? Here’s My Recommendation…
In these “20-percent” situations, can we discipline Joe for any absences that exceed the frequency and/or duration, as now confirmed by Dr. Zhivago?
What do the FMLA regulations tell us? Absolutely nothing. Nada. Zilch. Not even a half-hearted attempt by the Department of Labor to give guidance as to how employers might consider handling these situations. Worse yet, I know of NO court cases that give the employer guidance in this particular situation.
So, what’s my recommendation? You issue discipline for any absences that exceed the frequency and duration.
And what’s my rationale? If this FMLA regulation at Section 308(e) (which allows you to contact the doctor regarding Joe’s pattern) is to have ANY meaning, it must mean that an employer has the right to discipline the employee for absences that exceed the physician’s medical opinion. After all, we have given the doctor two chances to provide cover the for the employee — 1) the initial certification and, with our letter explaining the pattern, 2) the recertification. In this second go around, the doctor now has confirmed that he stands by his position that we can expect Joe to miss work three times per month at one day each because of his IBS. Therefore, it seems to me eminently reasonable — and defensible in an FMLA lawsuit — to discipline the employee for the excess absences. I recommend standing by this approach until the employee provides a contradictory medical opinion. See my previous post providing additional guidance in that situation.
To be clear, this position is not without risk, particularly given that no courts have offered their opinion on the issue. I have tussled with the DOL from time to time on this issue during FMLA investigations, and some of my clients have as well. Of course, the DOL takes the position that the doctor’s opinion on frequency/duration is just an estimate, and that you cannot hold the employee strictly accountable. Then, why DOL, did you issue the regulation at Section 308(e)? Ultimately, the DOL has relented in these handful of situations, suggesting that our take on this particular regulation makes some sense.
In the meantime, I look forward to litigating this issue, as I am confident for the love of all things good and holy in this world, the employer has the better argument here.
Jeff Nowak is a Partner at the law firm of Franczek Radelet and serves as co-chair of the firm’s Labor and Employment Practice and was named by Law Bulletin Publishing as one of Illinois’ top “40 Attorneys Under 40” to watch in 2012. Jeff is widely recognized as one of the nation’s foremost FMLA and ADA experts, regularly counseling clients on compliance with FMLA and ADA regulations, conducting FMLA/ADA audits and training, and successfully litigating FMLA and ADA lawsuits. Jeff is the author of the firm’s highly regarded FMLA Insights blog, which has been selected for four consecutive years by the ABA Journal as one of the top 100 legal blogs (2011-2014) and was also voted the No. 2 Labor and Employment blog by LexisNexis.
The above article first appeared in FMLA Insights and is reprinted with Jeff’s permission.